Friday, February 5, 2010

12 shooting techniques

there are 12 different shooting techniques discussed in class that a photographer can use to take creative, expressive photos. they are grouped here by the type of technique.

shutter techniques:
*fast shutter - freezes the moment, typically 250th or higher
*extended shutter - records an intentional blur of something in motion, 8th or lower up to several seconds
*panning - combines a mid-range shutter with the movement of the camera to create a shot with the center of interest still but the background streaking by

aperture techniques:
*high depth of field - everything in the shot is in focus, from the foreground to the background, f11 or smaller
*selective focus (shallow depth of field) - only the center of interest is in focus with the background or foreground blurred out

photographer positioning:
*high angle - above the subject looking down
*low angle - below the subject looking up
*close-up - closer to the subject than it is typically seen

LAYERS of information:
*texture - showing the various interesting textures in the shot, either with the center of interest or the background
*pattern - a repetition of objects in the shot, can be uniform or non-uniform
*refection - anything that will record a reflection adds something more to look at in the picture
*SHADOW - looking for strong shadow is the key to getting good contrast with black and white photography. the presence of shadow usually indicates the presence of highlights. when there are highlights and shadows there will be the range of values in between.

good photographs will usually empl0y more than one shooting technique in addition to following the guidelines for composition.

SLR manual camera basics 1

the following basics are camera controls that are used to regulate EXPOSURE. these controls allow you to be creative with your photography by employing different SHOOTING TECHNIQUES (next post).

Shutter Speed - expressed in fractions of a second, control how long light is allowed to come through the aperture. common shutter speeds are B, 1", 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 (b=bulb, 1" is one second)

*Higher numbers are FASTER - used to freeze action or in bright light conditions
*Lower numbers are SLOWER - used to intentionally blur motion or in lower light conditions

60th is the lowest speed you should hand hold your camera. lower speeds will cause unintentional motion blur from the photographers movement. for learning photography, i recommend shooting at the fastest speed possible for crisp shots - shutter speed priority, choose shutter speed first.

check out this video for an explanation of different shutter speed choices.

Aperture - the adjustable size of the opening in the lens that allows light in. the aperture controls depth of field which refers to how much of the photograph is in focus. common apertures are 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22. apertures are also referred to as f-stops.

*Higher numbers are SMALLER - used in bright light conditions or to create high depth of field
*Lower numbers are LARGER - used in lower light conditions or to create selective focus, blurring either the background or foreground

Film Speed - film speed is referred to as the ISO, or on older cameras ASA. common ISO's are 25, 50, 100, 125, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400. the number refers to the fineness of the GRAIN, which are the particles reactive to light.

*Higher numbers are FASTER - needing less light for exposure, more grain, less detail
*Lower numbers are SLOWER - needing more light for exposure, less grain, more detail

film speed is a creative decision determined before you begin shooting. one cannot change the film speed once it is in the camera, however shutter speed and aperture can be constantly adjusted to match the light conditions and your creativity.

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

composition links

want to learn more about photographic composition? here are some links that further explain the principles of composition and reinforce its importance:

photoinfo.com is a great starting point containing several posts on composition

here's another take on the 6 guidelines for composition

the bare basics of composition

*EXTRA CREDIT - find another interesting or easy to understand website about photographic composition and post it here

6 guidelines for composition

composition is the key to taking photographs with a 'universal appeal' - a photo that is interesting to look at regardless of who's in it or what it's of. composition is what makes the difference between a snapshot and a creative expression. as a photographer you often cannot move the subjects that you are taking a picture of, therefore you need to move around to compose your photo. don't be afraid to move around, get close, or shoot from higher or lower angles. the following guidelines will help you to see things differently through the lens of your camera.

1. center of interest - every photo needs a 'reason' for taking the picture. this is what you want the viewer to look at. the center of interest needs to be strong enough to make the picture unique, obvious enough to be clearly identified, and unified in it's focus. keep in mind that if what you are taking pictures of is not interesting to you, it will not be interesting to your viewer. shoot photos of subjects that interest you and it will translate into interesting photos.

2. rule of thirds - once you define your center of interest you need to put it into an interesting place within the photo. visually divide your space into thirds both horizontally and vertically. where those lines intersect are the most interesting areas to place your center of interest.


even if your center of interest fills the frame, or you are shooting something like a landscape where the whole picture acts as the center of interest, you will still want to shift your view slightly so that it is offset into one or two of the 'thirds' areas. take more than one picture shifting your center of interest into different thirds to find where it looks most interesting. also keep your background in mind, watching that your placement doesn't cause unwanted interference from background elements.

3. mergers - there are three types of mergers that we want to avoid: border, background, and color. these mergers occur because the camera sees things differently than our eye sees things. let's look at each merger and discuss why it occurs and how to avoid it.

border mergers occur when the frame of the picture cuts off a portion of the center of interest. this commonly occurs when taking pictures of people and the frame cuts off the top of someone's head or their feet.

to avoid border mergers make sure that your eye is positioned on the viewfinder when taking the picture. you should be able to see all four sides of the frame

background mergers occur when an object from the background interferes with the center of interest. this is because the scene that your eyes perceives in 3D is flattened out to 2D on the film. background mergers commonly involve people merging with object behind them, like a tree growing out of someone's head.

to avoid background mergers pay close attention to objects in the background. look beyond just the center of interest. the aperture setting can also help to avoid this.

color mergers occur because we are shooting with black and white film but we see in color. the film interprets distinction in VALUE only - the shades from white to black. a person's black shirt shot against a navy background will appear as the same value on black and white film.

to avoid color mergers make sure that you are taking pictures with appropriate lighting. the presence of highlights and shadows is a good indication that you will have adequate CONTRAST - the differences between light and dark. as a beginning photographer the best time and place to take your black and white pictures is outside when the sun is shining.

the first 3 guidelines you should always follow for good pictures. the remaining 3 will add interest to your photos.

4. framing - framing occurs when the photographer intentionally reinforces their center of interest by placing it in either an actual or implied frame. examples of an actual frame would be a person standing in a doorway, a cat in a window sill, a mirror reflection, etc. implied frames would be anything in the foreground that frames the image in the background, i.e. wildflowers that create a frame for a distant mountain peak.

5. leading lines - our eye likes to follow lines. by using actual or implied lines we can lead the viewer to the center of interest. actual lines could be a railing, fence line, sidewalk cracks or steps. implied lines could be a person pointing or looking torwards the subject, or something like a row of trees or a skyline.

6. balance - a balance photograph just looks right. there is no heaviness to one side or conflict between subject matter and background. the two types of balance we need to be concerned with are object balance and visual balance. one person to the far right of an empty scene would make it heavy on that side. if that person is balanced by items in the background or a secondary object to their left, object balance could be achieved. visual balance refers to the distribution of light and dark areas-a bright sunset sky balanced by low dark mountains-or an areas of detail balanced by an area of non/low detail.

in closing, check out this excerpt from "The Beginnings of Photographic Composition" by Kodak:

"Photography is communication. Only when you realize this can you begin to make good pictures.

To express yourself with your camera, you must see things that untrained people miss. The better you are at seeing, the more your pictures will stir the minds and emotions of others. As with other visual arts, the meaning of a photograph may be impossible to put into words. It may be a flash of insight into a person’s character, a feeling of awe evoked by nature, or an unexpected funny pose or gesture. But unless some meaning is conveyed, a photograph is sterile and has no reason for being.

Never forget that the difference between a good picture and a mediocre picture lays not so much in the equipment used as in the freshness of the viewpoint."

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

taking/developing pinhole camera prints

load your paper into your camera in the darkroom. make sure the emulsion (shiny) side is facing the pinhole. the emulsion is a chemical coating that is light reactive.

shoot a picture. place your camera on the ground or stationary object, hold it steady, and open the shutter. start with a 2 min. exposure for an indoor shot or 30 sec. for outside (if it's daylight).

develop the print. *remember work from right to left in the 55 darkroom!
developer: causes the image to appear. 45 sec.-1 min., agitate continuously
stop bath: stops the developing process. 10 sec.
fixer: fixes the image in place. 2 min., agitate occasionally
water wash: 4 min.

evaluate the print after developing. if it is too light, you need to increase exposure time. if it is too dark, decrease exposure time.

*once you figure out the correct exposure time, try to take a picture from an interesting angle, of an interesting object, or with creative composition. happy shooting!

Monday, January 11, 2010

what photography is and how it works

photo=light, graph=write, therefore photography literally means "light writing."

that being said, a camera is just a box that captures and controls light. the three elements needed for photography are light (exposure), photo emulsion material (light reactive film or paper), and a light proof container to put it in (camera).

KEY DEFINITION: EXPOSURE means TO SHOW TO LIGHT

the camera additionally incorporates two controls to allow or limit exposure:
1. APERTURE - the opening that allows light in
2. SHUTTER - the device that controls how long we let light enter the opening

here's a great web page explaining the camera obscura a simple concept that was the beginning of modern photography.

also check out this video for a demonstration of how to make a pinhole camera out of an oatmeal box. we'll be watching it in class but wanted to post it here as a reference.

here's another good written resource on making an oatmeal box camera.

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

pinhole camera research

Part 1: write a 1 page summary of the Jo Babcock article.

address the following points:
*who is Jo Babcock
*what type of camera does he use
*what is interesting about his work
*what can you learn from his work

Part 2: online

*search for "pinhole photography"
*find and print an image taken with a pinhole camera that is interesting to you
*write a paragraph telling me why you chose the image and what you like about it

extra credit!
post a link or comment here about what you found out about Pinhole Photography